La importancia de una comunicación eficaz

Cambio climático

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La presencia de la maquinaria negacionista en el asunto climático es una auténtica enfermedad inmunodeficiente para la humanidad. Una dolencia que no ha sido todavía diagnosticada en toda su extensión a pesar de que sus gérmenes son bien conocidos con nombres y apellidos para quien quiera conocerlos pero que, como el SIDA, no mata directamente sino a trevés de la pérdida de defensas de las víctimas. Sin el tratamiento adecuado, sea éste bacteriológico, químico, quirúrgico o penal, quienes lo sufrimos por ser conscientes de su manifestaciones nos defendemos como mucho con aspirinas, cuando no con tisanas diversas que unas veces son inocuas y otras hacen que nos sintamos incluso peor.

La necesidad de encontrar antídotos es crucial, por lo que el área de la comunicación del cambio climático se ha convertido en una compleja disciplina universitaria. Lo que es sinónimo, tras 30 años de asalto empresarial a la Academia, de que no sea inmune a la presencia ubicua del germen.

Como sea, la presencia ubicua de las agencias de comunicación y relaciones públicas generando argumentos digeribles en forma de vaselina retórica en favor del negacionismo y de la inacción obliga a un ejercicio de imaginación a quienes no son especialistas en confundir sino en decir la verdad, pero que son presentados por la maquinaria como sospechosos permanentes.

Un ejemplo magnífico de esfuerzo en este sentido nos lo ofrece James Hansen, conocido por ser considerado el mejor climatólogo del mundo. Esta consideración le es otorgada no sólo por ser el climatólogo de referencia de la NASA, sino por el presidente de la National Academy of Sciences de los Estados Unidos, Ralf Cicerone, en sus declaraciones: “es él y, después, todos los demás”. También porque  en 1988, en una famosa declaración en el congreso declaró inaugurado el cambio climático y efectuó unas predicciones de evolución de la temperatura que se han cumplido razonablemente 20 años después.

Pues bien. Hansen, cuyo sentido de la responsabilidad hacia sus semejantes le lleva a trabajar 18 horas al día entre las que desde hace algunos años unas pocas están dedicadas al activismo (ha sido detenido dos veces por su participación en manifestaciones contra la industria del carbón) es, tras el reciente fallecimiento de Stephen Schneider, el científico más preocupado por la comunicación. Echa de menos a Carl Sagan, cuya ausencia lamenta al creer que si estuviera en vida el problema climático sería mucho menos conocido.

Yo no estoy tan seguro. Si los buenos comunicadores no aparecen no es porque no los haya, sino porque actualmente no encuentran canal de comunicación eficaz, porque sus habilidades naturales no son valoradas por el mercado, o sea, los que lo manejan, el sistema mediático bloquea la transmisión de los mensajes considerados dañinos para los intereses de las clases dominantes y, asi, las personas que ostentan estas cualidades tienen que buscarse la vida en otros menesteres.

Hansen intenta cubrir ese hueco desde su privilegiada atalaya y punto de emisión, aunque su reciente informe sobre las temperaturas de este verano no haya sido reflejado en casi ningún medio convencional, en coherencia con lo que acabo de señalar. No deja de ser una buena noticia que este hombre irrumpa en este terreno, porque personajes de esta categoría intelectual alcanzan allí donde otros sólo podemos admirar: nos preocupamos por encontrar respuestas, mientras que la alta sabiduría consiste en ser capaz, además, de formular las preguntas correctas. A menudo, como saben los buenos profesores, lo que se quiere dar a entender se consigue mejor con una sencilla pregunta que con una extensa, documentada y erudita respuesta.

Vimos en el mes de agosto la dificultad que supone atribuir un fenómeno meteorológico extremo al calentamiento global. Sólo puede hacerse a través de la estadística y, por tanto, de forma probabilística. De modo que si nos preguntamos: ¿La abundancia de los fenómenos meteorológicos extremos de este año 2010 es debida al cambio climático? La respuesta científica rigurosa es que no es posible atribuir un fenómeno extremo concreto, sea éste meteorológico o climático, al calentamiento global. ¿Qué sensación retiene el público de esta situación? Que no hay relación entre una cosa y la otra.

Sin embargo, cuando la pregunta es: ¿Se hubieran producido estos fenómenos de ser la concentración de CO2 equivalente de 280 ppm, como en la era preindustrial? La respuesta científica rigurosa es: casi seguro que no. La sensación que el público registra es que si, los humanos somos los causantes de esos fenómenos.

Atentos pues a la forma de presentar la información.

 

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